Theory Guide

The main principles behind the art of winemaking are cleanliness, biological stability, and the use of natural ingredients.  Wine Cellar’s Theory Guide explains how to choose and balance wine components with minimal use of additives.


The acidity of wine is crucial to its body and balance.  

Most micro-organisms competing for nutrients in wine are at a significant disadvantage under acidic conditions.

Maintaining wine acidity guarantees yeast will bloom correctly during fermentation.

Obtaining the right acid concentration is the best way to naturally preserve wine.



Sugar breaks down during the fermentation process to create alcohol.

An insufficient amount of sugar will limit the fermentation process and prevent wine from fully developing.

Sugar is responsible for the final alcohol content of wine and its dryness/sweetness, changing how the wine will taste.



Yeast is an aerobic micro-organism, meaning it requires oxygen to turn food into energy.

Without oxygen, yeast turns its food (sugar) into alcohol.

The presence of oxygen is counterproductive to the fermentation of wine, because if oxygen is present, yeast will turn sugar into water instead.

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